Pengaturan Aktifitas Marine Bioprospecting Di Wilayah Laut Diluar Yurisdiksi Nasional

Main Article Content

Dhiana Puspitawati
Rangga Vandy Wardana
Sarah Savira

Abstract

Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk menganalisa aktifitas bioprospecting yang dilakukan di ABNJ. Baik UNCLOS 1982 maupun Convention on Biodiversity 1992 (CBD) tidak mengatur tentang aktifitas bioprospecting ini. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982) mengatur bahwa di wilayah laut diluar yurisdiksi nasional berlaku beberapa macam kebebasan, diantaranya adalah freedom of fishing dan freedom of scientific research. Penelitian ini merupakan tulisan hukum yang menggunakan metode yuridis normative, yang berangkat dari kekosongan hukum yang mengatur tentang aktifitas bioprospecting, khususnya di ABNJ. UNCLOS 1982 selanjutnya juga membedakan sumber daya alam sebagai sumber daya alam hayati (living resources) dan sumber daya alam non-hayati (non-living resources). Dalam perkembangannya, eksploitasi yang dilakukan negara terhadap sumber daya alam di laut berkembang dengan dilakukannya aktifitas bioprospecting, yang menghasilkan apa yang disebut sebagai marine genetic resources (MGRs), yang sangat bermanfaat bagi kehidupan umat manusia. Apakah bioprospecting dapat dikategorikan sebagai aktifitas fishing atau scientific research? Jika fishing, kenyataannya MGRs bukan ikan. Sedangkan jika scientific research, pada umumnya bioprospecting akan menghasilkan commercial benefit sehingga bukan riset murni sebagaimana diatur dalam UNCLOS 1982. Selanjutnya apakah MGRs dikategorikan sebagai sumber daya alam hayati atau non-hayati? jika hayati, apakah atas MGRs yang dihasilkan dari bioprospecting tersebut diberlakukan rejim freedom of high seas? jika demikian, maka akan menimbulkan adanya potensi komersial yang dikuasai oleh negara tertentu saja. Dengan demikian dibutuhkan pengaturan yang pasti akan aktifitas bioprospecting yang dilakukan di ABNJ.

Article Details

How to Cite
Puspitawati, D., Vandy Wardana, R., & Savira, S. (2023). Pengaturan Aktifitas Marine Bioprospecting Di Wilayah Laut Diluar Yurisdiksi Nasional. JATISWARA, 38(3), 265–276. https://doi.org/10.29303/jtsw.v38i3.541
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